Water, the elixir of life is fading away from the human reach. The freshwater sources which are just the friction of total available water on earth are declining much faster than expected due to various reasons. World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that approximately 844 million people around the world still lack basic access to safe drinking water – 90% of whom live in sub-Saharan Africa and Asian countries where economic development is slow and poverty is prevalent.Water the essential element of life has always been the most valuable constituent for all human activities, be it commercial, agriculture, industrial, power generation to the production of foods, etc. The economic growth of the nation totally depends on the availability of adequate water. For years, we have taken the water supply for granted. Earlier the availability was much higher than demand and water used to flow in abundance in the water bodies, but the situation has changed drastically over the years making water the subject of intense global discussion. The affliction point is further intensified as the United Nations warns that global water resources may only meet 60% of the world’s water demands by 2030. The declining resources is an important issue in drinking water supply which is further aggravating due to wide spread pollution and contamination of water. WHO estimated that globally at least 2 billion people use a drinking water source that is contaminated with feces and around 842,000 people die each year from diarrhea alone, as a result of unsafe drinking water including 361,000 children aged under 5 each year. .Approximately 844 million people around the world still lack basic access to safe drinking water..Although diarrhea is the most widely known disease linked to contaminated water, there are other hazards related to water pollution. Almost 240 million people are affected by schistosomiasis – an acute and chronic disease caused by parasitic worms contracted through exposure to infested water.A nation’s economy majorly depends on the availability of good quality water. Better water sources also mean less expenditure on health, reduced efforts in physically collecting it thus, allowing more time for other productive works, better commercial activities and people will be better able to remain economically productive.The imminent water scarcity, climate persistently getting hotter and drier and with increasing heat, water demand surges together with reducing the limited availability. In such a critical condition, we require resilience in our systems that are adaptable to significant changes and this entails well planned efforts towards an adaptive planning approach with the help of modern technological solutions and integrated water management process across water, wastewater and drainage systems at all scales..842,000 people die each year from diarrhea alone as a result of unsafe drinking water..Technological InterventionThe United Nations 2030 agenda for Sustainable Development Goals includes sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. Most countries are working towards the implementation of policies and reform to achieve this target. There is a combination of factors including financial resources, human capacity, technology and governance arrangements that are conducive to implementing the 2030 agenda and making progress towards the target. With the changing world scenario where technology is playing very important role in everybody’s life with digital and connected devices, latest innovation and creative technologies needs to be implemented in water sector with the aim to increase access to clean water.New innovations in water technology are helping us to deal with declining resources and transforming water distribution system. The sophisticated and digitally connected pipeline networks, treatment plants with modern filtration system, supervisory and management control of supply system, innovative leak detection and other digital intervention in water sector help us to better manage this elixir of life. As intense pressure is placed on the planet's limited water supplies, utilities are turning to technological innovation. New and emerging inventions are proving to be solicitous in optimizing water and wastewater provision and consumption.NanotechnologyWater filtration system using nanotechnology helps in removing microbes, bacteria and other pollutants from water using composite nanoparticles, which emit silver ions that destroy contaminants. Nanotechnology offers opportunities to develop next generation water supply systems with advanced level of treatment to improve efficiency as well as to augment water supply through safe use of water sources. WHO estimates that 1.6 million people die each year from diseases related to unsafe drinking water and basic sanitation and this perennial problem can effectively be tackled with a water purification system using nanotechnology. The researchers of IIT at Chennai are working towards developing scalable and low-cost water purification system using nanotechnology.DesalinationWith fresh water perishing from the surface, the available solution is to desalinate the abundantly available seawater for human consumption by using reverse osmosis technology. With the use of technology, Singapore is experimenting with a new form of seawater desalination with biomimicry, one of its kind, a combination of biology and engineering and mimicking the biological processes. Another new approach is to use biomimetic membranes enhanced with aquaporin; proteins embedded in cell membranes that selectively shuttle water in and out of cells while blocking out salts. Innovative engineering solutions with the help of technology can be derived for seawater desalination that can transform it beyond our imagination..IoT SolutionsInternet of Things (IoT) helps the water industry by connecting all the systems and players in the water supply chain right from the raw water to treatment plants, distribution network, pumping system to utilities and consumers seamlessly. The big benefit of IoT in water system is it empowers the decision makers with important insights on the state of water resources, machineries and equipment being used along with demand supply management. The new concept of Internet of Water is emerging and it implies with wide application and ample opportunities. Some of the important contribution of IoT in water industry includes transparency of the processes in the water supply chain, availability of crucial information due to real-time monitoring that helps in immediately addressing the issues, reduction in water leaks and loss of water in distribution network, water conservation strategy based on data analytics and prediction algorithms, automation and augmentation of resources and better consumer services leading to financial stability with better water resource management.IoT in Water ManagementUtilities are going for smart solutions with connected devices from transportation to communication and pipelines to detect water leaks, etc. and providing real-time information for swift decision making. There are plenty of smart water solutions that prove how IoT and digital technology can improve the processes in the water industry. Some of the leading solutions using IoT in water management can be described as:.Smart IrrigationIndia is among the largest user of fresh water for irrigation by using almost 80% of the water consumed by the country, but the rapidly drying up of water bodies and declining underground water levels have brought the water use issue in forefront. Low efficiencies of irrigation with significant wastage of water and poor water management practices have contributed to the overall water crisis. The use of IoT for irrigation provides a sensor-based solution for smart on-demand irrigation. It helps by measuring water status in plants to make sure they get just enough water for the best produce. Collected data on the plant’s required thirst is combined with the weather forecast to calculate the ideal irrigation scheme based on this data and help farmers keep their crops at the ultimate health. Applying a more intelligent approach to water management by deploying precision irrigation systems and computer algorithms and modeling is already established its benefits to farmers in developed countries. India needs to adopt this technique widely for effectively lowering the water usage in agriculture and use the saved water for other economic purposes.IoT in irrigation will prove to be beneficial for India in saving huge amount of water that can be used for other economic purposes..Smart MonitoringHuge amount of treated water is lost in distribution networks. In developing countries alone, it is estimated that 45 million cubic meters of precious water is lost every day in distribution networks. Water leakages are not only costly for utilities, but at the same time it highly increases the chance of water pollution while mounting pressure on already stretched and aging networks. India is among the countries with high level of water loss ratio, needs the technologically prompted smart monitoring system to control on such wastage with quality monitoring in the supply network. Electronic instruments, such as pressure and acoustic sensors, telemetry units and software connected wirelessly in real time basis to the centralized and cloud-based monitoring systems creates insights for the decision-makers and allow utilities to detect and pinpoint leaks quickly and precisely..Wastewater RecyclingNew technologies are promising to transform wastewater into a resource for energy generation and a source of drinking water. Modular hybrid activated sludge digesters are being used to separate nutrients to produce chemical free fertilizers for agriculture or even as an alternative fuel. In large cities around the world where land spaces are limited, the need for wastewater systems are to be setup in more compact spaces in the form of decentralized treatment facilities with high level of recycled water generation for reuse even for drinking purposes.The smart and intelligent solutions are being used in different sectors for a long time and the same is now being adopted by water utilities to bridge the growing gap between water supply and demand. Apart from IoT, other modern technologies such as Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Big Data are the preferred intervention for these solutions. With increasing challenges being faced by the utilities across the globe, improving water availability and accessibility is becoming an important task. The AI is supporting water utilities to operate and manage declining water resources in a planned manner. The water sector’s immediate challenge is to accurately structure the collected data and smart water management services to maximize AI’s potential for the desired result.The Indian water sector is on the crossroads. In a developing country with huge requirements, there is a vast scope of growth. The recent disruptions due to COVID-19 have an adverse effect in all aspects of life and the water sector has also suffered the consequences. This situation has intensified an increased emphasis on digital solutions and transformation across the functionalities. Disruptive technologies can become a key differentiator by improving adaptability towards such crises in the future and will make water sector more resilient and sustainable.India has seen sweeping changes in last few years and the government has been addressing the sector’s potential with an unusual, but highly effective response. The government has selected to correct the sectorial framework with policy reforms and declaration of large projects under several new schemes having dedicated budgets for water sector. We believe that this sequential correction is critical and logical and Indian water sector will get benefitted with the implementation of newer and digital technologies that will swing the needle towards growth of the sector.